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AIDS. 1999 Oct 22;13(15):2069-74.

Effectiveness of isoniazid chemoprophylaxis for HIV-infected drug users at high risk for active tuberculosis.

Author information

1
Department of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10467, USA. mgourevi@montefiore.org

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To define the effectiveness of chemoprophylaxis, outside of a clinical trial setting, in preventing tuberculosis among tuberculin-reactive and anergic HIV-infected drug users at high risk of developing active tuberculosis.

DESIGN:

An observational cohort study.

SETTING:

Methadone maintenance treatment program with on-site primary care.

PARTICIPANTS:

Current or former drug users enrolled in methadone treatment.

INTERVENTIONS:

Annual skin testing for tuberculosis infection and anergy was performed, and eligible patients were offered daily isoniazid for 12 months and followed prospectively.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:

The development of active tuberculosis.

RESULTS:

A total of 155 persons commenced chemoprophylaxis. Among tuberculin reactors, tuberculosis rates were 0.51 and 2.07/100 person-years in those completing 12 months versus those not taking prophylaxis [rate ratio 0.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.06-1.01]. Among anergic individuals, comparable rates were 0 and 1.44/100 person-years. Lower tuberculosis rates among completers were not attributable to differences in immune status between the treated and untreated groups.

CONCLUSION:

The completion of isoniazid chemoprophylaxis was associated with a marked reduction in tuberculosis risk among tuberculin reactors and anergic persons in this high-risk population. These data support aggressive efforts to provide a complete course of preventative therapy to HIV-infected tuberculin reactors, and lend weight to the findings of others that isoniazid can reduce the rate of tuberculosis in high-risk anergic HIV-infected persons.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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