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Nihon Rinsho. 1999 Oct;57(10):2187-92.

[Vitamin B1].

[Article in Japanese]

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Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Osaka Prefecture University.


Vitamin B1 (thiamin), taken-up into cells, is converted to thiamin diphosphate (TDP), and TDP acts as a cofactor for several enzymes involving in carbohydrate metabolism. CoA-dependent oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate is catalyzed by pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex (PDC) with NAD+ as an electron acceptor in most organisms involving mammals and higher plants. PDC consists of three component enzymes, one of which is pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) which contains TDP as a prosthetic group. Similar multienzyme complex for 2-oxoglutarate or branched chain 2-oxoacids is also found in mammals. In anaerobic bacteria, archaebacteria and anaerobic protozoa, pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) functions for the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate with ferredoxin in place of NAD+. PFOR contains TDP as a cofactor; however its structure is quite different from PDC and 1-3[4Fe-4S] clusters are involved as redox centers. Pyruvate:NADP+ oxidoreductase (PNOR), which catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate with NADP+ as an electron acceptor, occurs in mitochondria of Euglena gracilis, a protist containing chloroplasts. PNOR consists of two functional domains, one of which contains TDP and 3[4Fe-4S] clusters and resembles PFOR. Another domain involves FMN and FAD as redox centers and its structure is similar to NADPH-cytochrom P450 reductase.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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