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Am Heart J. 1999 Nov;138(5 Pt 1):950-4.

Long-term invasive and noninvasive results of percutaneous balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty in children, adolescents, and adults.

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Fattouma Bourguiba University Hospital, Monastir, Tunisia.



Short-term and mid-term results of percutaneous balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty (BPV) are well known. However, data documenting long-term effectiveness of BPV are scarce.


The long-term results of 62 patients were assessed by catheterization and Doppler echocardiography 1 to 10 years (mean 6.4 +/- 3.4) after BPV. Mean age of the patients was 13.5 +/- 10.5 years (range 9 months to 44 years). Twenty patients were 16 years of age or older. Right ventricular peak systolic pressure was systemic or suprasystemic in 72% of patients. A double-balloon technique was used in 29 patients. The balloon-to-pulmonary valve diameter ratio was 1.4 +/- 0.38 (range 1 to 1.8). Total systolic transpulmonary pressure gradient in excess of 50 mm Hg in all patients before BPV decreased from 98 +/- 40 to 32 +/- 23 immediately after BPV and to 19 +/- 9 mm Hg at follow-up (P <.001). Infundibular gradient increased from 8 +/- 10 to 14 +/- 24 mm Hg after BPV and fell to 1 +/- 4 mm Hg at follow-up (P <.01). In 16 patients it was >/=20 mm Hg and virtually disappeared spontaneously in all at follow-up. The valvar gradient fell from 93 +/- 39 to 19 +/- 11 (P <.001) and was 18 +/- 9 mm Hg at follow-up. It remained unchanged in 3 patients (range 36 to 45 mm Hg). In 3 (4.8%) other patients, a new gradient >35 mm Hg developed that was >/=50 mm Hg in all 3. Among 5 patients having dysplastic valves, 3 had a gradient >35 mm Hg. There were no predictors of a gradient >35 mm Hg at long-term follow-up by univariate or multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis. Mild to moderate pulmonary regurgitation was present in 39% of patients. On electrocardiography, right ventricular hypertrophy decreased significantly in 90% of patients.


BPV as a treatment of typical pulmonic valve stenosis produces excellent long-term results. Restenosis is rare (4.8%) and occurs more frequently in patients with dysplastic valves. There is a constant spontaneous regression of associated infundibular obstruction.

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