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Biochem Pharmacol. 1999 Nov 15;58(10):1675-83.

Contribution of phosphodiesterase isoenzymes and cyclic nucleotide efflux to the regulation of cyclic GMP levels in aortic smooth muscle cells.

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Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.


Involvement of phosphodiesterase isoenzymes (PDEs) in guanosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) hydrolysis was analyzed in aortic smooth muscle cells. Four families of PDEs were separated from pig aorta: PDE1 (calcium-calmodulin-activated), PDE3 (cGMP-inhibited), PDE4 (adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate [cAMP]-specific), and PDE5 (cGMP-specific). Within this PDE complement, PDE1 and PDE5 mostly contributed to the hydrolysis of cGMP both in the presence and absence of calcium-calmodulin. The role of these isoenzymes in cGMP degradation was analyzed in primary cultures of porcine aortic smooth muscle cells after stimulation with sodium nitroprusside (SNP) or atrial natriuretic factor (ANF). Pretreatment with 10 microM zaprinast, a concentration that selectively inhibits PDE5, did not potentiate the SNP- or ANF-induced rise of cGMP, questioning the widespread opinion that only PDE5 accounts for cGMP hydrolysis in this tissue. Further evidence came from experiments assessing the effect of zaprinast or 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine at concentrations inhibiting both type 1 and type 5 isoenzymes, in which this potentiation was clearly seen. Contribution of cGMP egression to the control of intracellular cGMP levels after SNP or ANF stimulation was also investigated. Shortly after guanylate cyclase activation, extracellular cGMP levels surpassed intracellular levels. However, comparison of the amounts of cGMP extruded to the extracellular medium with those degraded by PDEs leads to the conclusion that efflux is of relatively minor importance in regulating intracellular cGMP levels. In cells made tolerant to SNP, selective PDE5 inhibition synergistically increased intra- and extracellular cGMP amounts after SNP stimulation. These results indicate a previously undescribed greater relevance of PDE5 after tolerance development in aortic smooth muscle cells.

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