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J Consult Clin Psychol. 1999 Oct;67(5):675-87.

Contingency management, self-control, and education support in the treatment of childhood phobic disorders: a randomized clinical trial.

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Department of Psychology, Florida International University, University Park, Miami 33199, USA.


This study evaluated the relative efficacy of an exposure-based contingency management (CM) treatment condition and an exposure-based cognitive self-control (SC) treatment condition relative to an education support (ES) control condition for treating children with phobic disorders. Eighty-one children and their parents completed a 10-week treatment program in which children and parents were seen in separate treatment sessions with the therapist, followed by a brief conjoint meeting. Children in both the CM and SC conditions showed substantial improvement on all of the outcome measures. These gains were maintained at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. Interestingly, children in the ES condition also showed comparable improvements at posttreatment and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. Implications of the findings are discussed with respect to knowledge development and clinical practice.

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