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Hum Mutat. 1999;14(5):412-22.

Analysis of both TSC1 and TSC2 for germline mutations in 126 unrelated patients with tuberous sclerosis.

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  • 1Molecular Neurogenetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA.


Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the development of multiple hamartomas involving many organs. About two-thirds of the cases are sporadic and appear to represent new mutations. With the cloning of two causative genes, TSC1 and TSC2 it is now possible to analyze both genes in TSC patients and identify germline mutations. Here we report the mutational analysis of the entire coding region of both TSC1 and TSC2 genes in 126 unrelated TSC patients, including 40 familial and 86 sporadic cases, by single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis followed by direct sequencing. Mutations were identified in a total of 74 (59%) cases, including 16 TSC1 mutations (5 sporadic and 11 familial cases) and 58 TSC2 mutations (42 sporadic and 16 familial cases). Overall, significantly more TSC2 mutations were found in our population, with a relatively equal distribution of mutations between TSC1 and TSC2 among the familial cases, but a marked underrepresentation of TSC1 mutations among the sporadic cases (P = 0.0035, Fisher's exact test). All TSC1 mutations were predicted to be protein truncating. However, in TSC2 13 missense mutations were found, five clustering in the GAP-related domain and three others occurring in exon 16. Upon comparison of clinical manifestations, including the incidence of intellectual disability, we could not find any observable differences between TSC1 and TSC2 patients. Our data help define the distribution and spectrum of mutations associated with the TSC loci and will be useful for both understanding the function of these genes as well as genetic counseling in patients with the disease.

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