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Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999 Oct 22;264(2):441-8.

Advanced glycation end product-induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma gene expression in the cultured mesangial cells.

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Department of Internal Medicine, Sano Hospital, Suehiro 3-3-1-15, Asahikawa, 078-8133, Japan.


We identified the AGEs-induced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated gamma (PPAR gamma) in the cultured mesangial cells using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), and Western immunoblotting. Administration of AGEs-BSA into the cultured mesangial cells resulted in an increase in the levels of mRNA and proteins for PPAR gamma in a dose-dependent manner. Specific bands which indicate the protein binding to PPAR gamma responsive element (PPRE) in the nuclear extracts were also detected in AGEs-BSA-treated mesangial cells, but not found in BSA-treated cells by EMSA. Antioxidants, NAC, PDTC, and aminoguanidine, attenuated the gene expression and activity of PPAR gamma induced by AGEs. These results indicate that PPAR gamma was induced and activated by the oxidative signal(s) evoked by AGEs-ligand-receptor interactions. AGEs-induced gene expression of PPAR gamma and the signal intensity of PPAR gamma and PPRE complex were attenuated furthermore by protein kinase C inhibitors, calphostin C and staurospolin, but not abolished completely, indicating that both signal transduction pathways through the induction of PKC activation and independent of PKC activation were involved in the AGEs-mediated expression and activation process of PPAR gamma. AGEs also increased the gene expression of smooth muscle alpha-actin, which is a marker for phenotypic change in mesangial cells. It is suggested therefore that AGEs-induced transcription factor as the oxidative stress may have a role in the differentiation of mesangial cells.

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