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Biochemistry. 1999 Oct 19;38(42):14023-35.

Tandem heterocyclization activity of the multidomain 230 kDa HMWP2 subunit of Yersinia pestis yersiniabactin synthetase: interaction of the 1-1382 and 1383-2035 fragments.

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Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

Erratum in

  • Biochemistry 1999 Dec 21;38(51):17000.


The six-domain, 2035-amino acid subunit high-molecular weight protein 2 (HMWP2) activates salicylate and two cysteines and loads them covalently on its three carrier protein domains during assembly of the iron-chelating virulence factor, yersiniabactin of the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis. The 1-1382 fragment of HMWP2 (ArCP-Cy1-A), overproduced in Escherichia coli, contains the first three domains: the aryl carrier protein (ArCP) domain, the cysteine specific adenylation domain (A), and the first condensation/cyclization domain (Cy1). The ArCP can be posttranslationally phosphopantetheinylated on Ser52 and then loaded with a salicyl group on the phosphopantetheine (Ppant) thiol by action of the YbtE, a salicyl-AMP ligase. The HMWP2 1-1382 fragment can activate L-cysteine as Cys-AMP. The HMWP2 1383-2035 fragment contains the remaining three domains: two peptidyl carrier proteins (PCP1 and PCP2) separated by a second condensation/cyclization domain (Cy2). Phosphopantetheinylation of the HMWP2 1383-2035 fragment at Ser1439 (PCP1) and Ser1977 (PCP2) facilitates cysteinylation of both thiols by HMWP2 1-1382. When the holo 1-1382 and bis-holo 1383-2035 protein fragments are mixed with ATP, salicylate, and cysteine, four products are slowly released [salicylcysteine (Sal-Cys), (hydroxyphenylthiazolinyl)cysteine (HPT-Cys), HPT-Cys-Cys, and the bisheterocyclic HPTT-Cys], reflecting thiolytic rerouting by cysteine in solution of elongating acyl-S-enzyme intermediates tethered at ArCP, PCP1, and PCP2 carrier protein domains, respectively. Conducting the in trans reconstitution with the S1439A mutant of HMWP2 1383-2035 releases only Sal-Cys, while the S1977A mutant leads to HPT-Cys formation but not HPT-Cys-Cys or HPTT-Cys. These results suggest localization of particular acyl-S-enzyme intermediates to each of the three carrier protein regions and also establish the sequential action of Cy1 and Cy2, with the latter producing the tandem 4,2-bisheterocyclic hydroxyphenylthiazolinylthiazolinyl (HPTT) moiety characteristic of this class of siderophores.

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