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Biochemistry. 1999 Oct 19;38(42):13928-36.

Characterization of stromelysin 1 (MMP-3), matrilysin (MMP-7), and membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) derived fibrin(ogen) fragments D-dimer and D-like monomer: NH2-terminal sequences of late-stage digest fragments.

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Laboratory of Blood Coagulation Biochemistry, Lindsley F. Kimball Research Institute, New York Blood Center, New York 10021, USA.


Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) participate in physiological remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Recently we determined that both fibrinogen (Fg) and cross-linked fibrin (XL-Fb) are substrates for selected MMPs. Specifically, XL-Fb clots were solubilized by MMP-3 (stromelysin 1) by cleavage at gamma Gly 404-Ala 405, resulting in a D-like monomer fragment. Similarly, MMP-7 (matrilysin) and MT1-MMP (membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase) solubilized XL-Fb clots. However, the molecular mass of fragment D-dimer, obtained after MMP-7 and MT1-MMP degradation of XL-Fb, is similar to that of fragment D-dimer from plasmin degradation ( approximately 186 kDa). In contrast, fragment D-like monomer, from MMP-3 degradation of both fibrinogen (Fg) and XL-Fb, is similar to fragment D from plasmin degradation of Fg ( approximately 94 kDa). Reduced chains from MMP-3, MMP-7, and MT1-MMP digests of Fg and XL-Fb were subjected to direct sequence analyses and D/D-dimer alpha-chain showed cleavage at both alpha Asp 97-Phe 98 and alpha Asn 102-Asn 103. Degradation of the beta-chain resulted in microheterogeneity of cleavage sites at beta Asp 123-Leu 124, beta Asn 137-Val 138, and beta Glu 141-Tyr 142, whereas all three enzymes cleaved the gamma-chain at gamma Thr 83-Leu 84. In both Fg and XL-Fb, several cleavage sites obtained by proteolysis with MMP-3, MMP-7, and MT1-MMP were found to be in very close proximity to those obtained by plasmin on these same substrates. That does not occur with other MMPs such as MMP-1, -2, and -9 and MT2-MMP. The degradation of XL-Fb by MMPs suggests both plasmin-dependent and independent mechanisms of fibrinolysis that might be relevant in inflammation, angiogenesis, arthritis, and atherosclerosis.

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