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Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Oct;11(5):509-15.

Connective tissue in female urinary incontinence.

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Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden.


An effective closure of the female urethra in stress situations is dependent on an integrated action of various anatomical structures connected to the organ. The most important of these structures - from a functional aspect - are the suburethral vaginal wall, the pubourethral ligaments, the pubococcygeus muscles and the paraurethral connective tissues. In all these structures connective tissue is an essential ingredient. Hence, defects in the actual connective tissue - in particular the paraurethral connective tissue that connects the aforementioned structures to each other and to the urethra - will bring about an ineffective urethral closure. Female urinary incontinence may then be caused by defective connective tissue per se and/or by a disconnection of the aforementioned structures, whereby the urethra cannot be 'kinked' - that is, closed off in stress situations.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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