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J Chromatogr A. 1999 Sep 24;856(1-2):3-54.

Solid-phase extraction: method development, sorbents, and coupling with liquid chromatography.

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  • 1Laboratoire Environnement et Chimie Analytique, Ecole SupĂ©rieure de Physique et de Chimie de Paris, France.


The objective of this review is to provide updated information about the most important features of the new solid-phase extraction (SPE) materials, their interaction mode and their potential for modern SPE. First, the recent developments are given in formats, phases, automation, high throughput purpose and set-up of new types of procedures. Emphasis is then placed on the large choice of sorbents for trapping analytes over a wide range of polarities, such as highly cross-linked copolymers, functionalized copolymers, graphitized carbons or some specific n-alkylsilicas. The method development is given which is based on prediction from liquid chromatographic retention data or solvation parameters in order to determine the main parameters of any sequence (type and amount of sorbent, sample volume which can be applied without loss of recovery, composition and volume of the clean-up solution, composition and volume of the desorption solution). Obtaining extracts free from matrix interferences in a few steps--one step when possible--is now included in the development of SPE procedure. New selective phases such as mixed-mode and restricted access matrix sorbents or emerging phases such as immunosorbents or molecularly imprinted polymers are reviewed. Selectivity obtained by combining two sorbents is described with the use of ion-exchange or ion-pair sorbents. Special attention is given to complete automation of the SPE sequence with its on-line coupling with liquid chromatography followed by various detection modes. This represents a fast, modern and reliable approach to trace analysis. Many examples illustrate the various features of modern SPE which are discussed in this review. They have been selected in both biological and environmental areas.

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