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Int J Cardiol. 1999 Sep 30;71(1):57-61.

Left ventricular geometry and function in patients with aortic stenosis: gender differences.

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Department of Cardiac and Vascular Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Collegium Medicum of the Jagiellonian University, Cracow, Poland.



Gender differences in cardiac size have been described in normal and pathological conditions in human and animals. Sex determination of a pattern of hypertrophy as a response to pressure overload has not been extensively evaluated and is still poorly understood in humans.


To investigate the influence of gender in the left ventricle remodelling and preservation of the left ventricle function 195 adults (140 men and 55 women) with isolated aortic stenosis were evaluated. The mean age was 52 +/- 11 years for men and 53 +/- 13 years for women. All the patients had similar degree of aortic stenosis finally treated with valve replacement, similar clinical status and no signs of coronary artery disease in coronary angiograms. On echocardiography the left ventricle of women had a smaller the end systolic (30.5 +/- 7.8 vs. 39.4 +/- 11.2, P<0.001) and the end diastolic (49.4 +/- 9 vs. 57.3 +/- 11, P<0.001) chamber size. The female left ventricle generated a higher relative wall thickness (0.65 +/- 0.21 vs. 0.52 +/- 0.12, P<0.01), a greater fractional shortening (35.3 +/- 8.5 vs. 32.0 +/- 9.0, P<0.01) and a higher ejection fraction (64.4 +/- 12.7 vs. 57.5 +/- 14.6, P<0.001). The left ventricle posterior wall thickness and the septal thickness indexes were similar in both groups. There were also significant differences between the two groups in the left ventricle mass index.


Gender has an important influence on the left ventricle adaptation pattern to pressure overload due to aortic stenosis. Women developed a greater degree of left ventricle hypertrophy documented as changes in left ventricle geometry (increased relative wall thickness, left ventricular mass) and left ventricle function (fractional shortening and ejection fraction).

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