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J Lab Clin Med. 1999 Oct;134(4):372-7.

Monochloramine-induced cytolysis to cultured rat gastric mucosal cells: role of glutathione and iron in protection and injury.

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Second Department of Internal Medicine, Dokkyo University School of Medicine, Tochigi, Japan.


Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection plays a role in the pathogenesis of peptic ulceration as well as active chronic gastritis. Possible mechanisms of H. pylori-induced mucosal injury include the generation of toxic monochloramine (NH2Cl) from oxidant (HOCl)--which is a product of activated neutrophils-and ammonia (NH3), which is a metabolite of H. pylori urease. To clarify mechanisms by which NH2Cl induces cytolysis, we determined the effects of glutathione (GSH) alteration and iron chelation on NH2Cl-induced damage in cultured rat gastric mucosal cells, because these are involved in oxidant injury. Cytotoxicity was quantified by chromium 51 release from prelabeled cells that were exposed to NH2Cl or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Although both NH2Cl and H2O2 caused a time-related and dose-dependent increase in 51Cr release, NH2Cl was more cytotoxic than H2O2. Pretreatment with extracellular GSH caused a right shift of the dose-response curve for NH2Cl, whereas pretreatment with diethyl maleate (a depletor of cellular GSH) rendered cells less resistant to NH2Cl. Iron chelation with 1,10-phenanthroline or deferoxamine failed to influence NH2Cl injury, whereas such treatment was protective against H2O2. Intracellular GSH seems to play an important role as a potent defense system against NH2Cl, as observed in H2O2-induced damage. However, the mechanisms of NH2Cl-induced damage seem to be distinctly different from cytolysis by H2O2 in terms of the mediation of cellular iron.

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