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Am J Physiol. 1999 Oct;277(4):C766-76. doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.1999.277.4.C766.

Maitotoxin and P2Z/P2X(7) purinergic receptor stimulation activate a common cytolytic pore.

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Rammelkamp Center for Education and Research, Department of Physiology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio 44109, USA.


The effects of maitotoxin (MTX) on plasmalemma permeability are similar to those caused by stimulation of P2Z/P2X(7) ionotropic receptors, suggesting that 1) MTX directly activates P2Z/P2X(7) receptors or 2) MTX and P2Z/P2X(7) receptor stimulation activate a common cytolytic pore. To distinguish between these two possibilities, the effect of MTX was examined in 1) THP-1 monocytic cells before and after treatment with lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma, a maneuver known to upregulate P2Z/P2X(7) receptor, 2) wild-type HEK cells and HEK cells stably expressing the P2Z/P2X(7) receptor, and 3) BW5147.3 lymphoma cells, a cell line that expresses functional P2Z/P2X(7) channels that are poorly linked to pore formation. In control THP-1 monocytes, addition of MTX produced a biphasic increase in the cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)); the initial increase reflects MTX-induced Ca(2+) influx, whereas the second phase correlates in time with the appearance of large pores and the uptake of ethidium. MTX produced comparable increases in [Ca(2+)](i) and ethidium uptake in THP-1 monocytes overexpressing the P2Z/P2X(7) receptor. In both wild-type HEK and HEK cells stably expressing the P2Z/P2X(7) receptor, MTX-induced increases in [Ca(2+)](i) and ethidium uptake were virtually identical. The response of BW5147.3 cells to concentrations of MTX that produced large increases in [Ca(2+)](i) had no effect on ethidium uptake. In both THP-1 and HEK cells, MTX- and Bz-ATP-induced pores activate with similar kinetics and exhibit similar size exclusion. Last, MTX-induced pore formation, but not channel activation, is greatly attenuated by reducing the temperature to 22 degrees C, a characteristic shared by the P2Z/P2X(7)-induced pore. Together, the results demonstrate that, although MTX activates channels that are distinct from those activated by P2Z/P2X(7) receptor stimulation, the cytolytic/oncotic pores activated by MTX- and Bz-ATP are indistinguishable.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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