Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Dev Comp Immunol. 1999 Sep;23(6):459-72.

Amphibian declines: an immunological perspective.

Author information

  • 1Department of EPO Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder 80309-0334, USA. careyc@spot.colorado.edu

Abstract

Many, but not all, amphibian populations have been declining on all six continents on which they live. Although habitat destruction, direct application of toxicants, and introduction of predators/competitors are obvious causes of amphibian declines, many amphibians are dying of infectious diseases in relatively pristine habitats on several continents. In this paper, we review the patterns of these disease outbreaks and the characteristics of amphibian immune systems. Hypotheses are presented to explain the apparent susceptibility of amphibians to these pathogens. Natural and man-made factors that can alter amphibian immune responses to pathogens are discussed. Additional research is needed on the biology of the specific pathogens, the pattern of immune responses they elicit, and the nature of environmental stressors that may increase susceptibility to infectious disease.

PMID:
10512457
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

LinkOut - more resources

Full Text Sources

Other Literature Sources

PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Support Center