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Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1999 Aug 20;154(1-2):161-70.

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide gene expression in the stomach: revealed by a transgenic mouse study, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical staining.

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Department of Zoology, The University of Hong Kong, People's Republic of China.


Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) plays an important role in stimulating insulin release in the pancreas as well as inhibiting gastric acid secretion in the stomach. GIP has been found in specific endocrine cells located in the mucosal layer of the small intestine and in the submandibular salivary gland. In this study, the tissue-specific expression of GIP guided by 1.2 kb of the human GIP (hGIP) gene 5' flanking region was investigated by a transgenic mouse approach. A chimeric promoter-reporter gene construct linking the 5'-flanking region of the hGIP gene with the thymidine kinase gene of the herpes simplex virus was introduced into the genomes of mice by microinjection. By reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) and thymidine kinase assays, transgene expression was found in the stomach and pancreas. The enzyme activity detected in the stomach was about 6-fold higher than that found in the pancreas, suggesting that GIP may be expressed in the stomach. This observation is supported by RT-PCR studies since both human and mouse GIP transcripts are detected in the stomach and small intestine. In addition, distinct GIP-producing cells were identified in both tissues in mouse by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical staining. Taken together, our data demonstrate for the first time that GIP is expressed in human and mouse stomach.

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