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J Biol Chem. 1999 Oct 8;274(41):29260-5.

Tyrosine versus serine/threonine phosphorylation by protein kinase casein kinase-2. A study with peptide substrates derived from immunophilin Fpr3.

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Dipartimento di Chimica Biologica and Centro di Studio delle Biomembrane del C.N.R., Università di Padova, viale G. Colombo 3, 35121 Padova, Italy.


Protein kinase casein kinase-2 (CK2) is a spontaneously active, ubiquitous, and pleiotropic enzyme that phosphorylates seryl/threonyl residues specified by multiple negatively charged side chains, the one at position n + 3 being of crucial importance (minimum consensus S/T-x-x-E/D/S(P)/T(P). Recently CK2 has been reported to catalyze phosphorylation of the yeast nucleolar immunophilin Fpr3 at a tyrosyl residue (Tyr(184)) fulfilling the consensus sequence of Ser/Thr substrates (Wilson, L.K., Dhillon, N., Thorner, J., and Martin, G.S. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 12961-12967). Here we show that, by contrast to other tyrosyl peptides fulfilling the consensus sequence for CK2, a peptide reproducing the sequence around Fpr3 Tyr(184) (DEDADIY(184)DEEDYDL) is phosphorylated by CK2, albeit with much higher K(m) (384 versus 4. 3 microM) and lower V(max) (8.4 versus 1,132 nmol.min(-1).mg(-1)) than its derivative with Tyr(184) replaced by serine. The replacement of Asp at position n + 1 with alanine and, to a lesser extent, of Ile at n - 1 with Asp are especially detrimental to tyrosine phosphorylation as compared with serine phosphorylation, which is actually stimulated by the Ile to Asp modification. In contrast the replacement of Glu at n + 3 with alanine almost suppresses serine phosphorylation but not tyrosine phosphorylation. It can be concluded that CK2 is capable to phosphorylate, under special circumstances, tyrosyl residues, which are specified by structural features partially different from those that optimize Ser/Thr phosphorylation.

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