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Lancet. 1999 Sep 18;354(9183):992-5.

Acute renal failure with neurological involvement in adults associated with measles virus isolation.

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  • 1National Institute of Virology, Pune, India. icmrniv@icmrniv.ren.nic.in

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Three people with clinical manifestations of acute renal failure with neurological involvement of unknown cause were admitted to a hospital in Mumbai, India. We describe clinical presentations and investigations of the cause.

METHODS:

We analysed case reports and laboratory findings for the patients (age 37-43 years, two men, one woman) that were provided by the clinicians in charge. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid were tested for viral cause by IgM ELISA to Japanese encephalitis, West Nile fever, dengue, and measles. Samples were inoculated in vero-cell culture for virus isolation. The virus isolates were confirmed with indirect immunofluoresence with antimeasles immune sera and mouse monoclonal antibodies to measles HA and F proteins and with neutralisation tests using antimeasles immune sera.

FINDINGS:

Clinical features were fever, vomiting, oliguria or anuria, bilateral facial weakness, impaired hearing, blindness, proximal and distal areflexic limb paralysis, and respiratory paralysis. No patient had a macropapular rash. Blood urea nitrogen (4.64-27.8 mmol/L) and creatinine (601.1-1105.0 micromol/L) were high, and cerebrospinal fluid contained high concentrations of proteins and pleocytosis. Kidney biopsy samples in two patients showed severe interstitial nephritis. IgM antibodies to measles were found in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Vero-cell cultures from serum and cerebrospinal fluid of one patient and cerebrospinal fluid of two patients, showed cytopathic effects characteristic of measles.

INTERPRETATION:

Unusual manifestations of acute renal failure with neurological involvement associated with measles virus in adults presenting without rash was confirmed. Our findings may affect the development of measles-elimination programmes.

PMID:
10501362
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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