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J Nutr. 1999 Oct;129(10):1761-4.

Cellular import of cobalamin (Vitamin B-12).

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1
Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA.

Abstract

Recent studies have isolated and characterized human gastric intrinsic factor (IF) and transcobalamin II (TC II) genes, whose products mediate the import of cobalamin (Cbl; Vitamin B-12) across cellular plasma membranes. Analyses of cDNA and genomic clones of IF and TC II have provided some important insights into their sites of expression, structure and function. IF and TC II genes contain the same number, size and position of exons, and four of their eight intron-exon boundaries are identical. In addition, they share high homology in certain regions that are localized to different exons, indicating that IF and TC II may have evolved from a common ancestral gene. Both IF and TC II mediate transmembrane transport of Cbl via their respective receptors that function as oligomers in the plasma membrane. IF-mediated import of Cbl is limited to the apical membranes of epithelial cells; it occurs via a multipurpose receptor recently termed "cubilin," and the imported Cbl is usually exported out of these cells bound to endogenous TC II. On the other hand, TC II-mediated Cbl import occurs in all cells, including epithelial cells via a specific receptor, and the Cbl imported is usually retained, converted to its coenzyme forms, methyl-Cbl and 5'-deoxyadenosyl-Cbl, and utilized.

PMID:
10498744
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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