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Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1999 Aug;53(4):515-22.

Epidemiological study on sleep habits and insomnia of new outpatients visiting general hospitals in Japan.

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Department of Psychiatry, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan.


A large scale epidemiological survey of sleep habits, specifically for insomnia, was conducted using 6277 new outpatients from 11 general hospitals in Japan. They were requested to answer a questionnaire newly designed for this study, which consisted of 34 questions concerning sociodemographic characteristics, current medical conditions, sleep habits, current or past sleep complaints, symptoms of parasomnia, use of hypnotics/anxiolytics and other aspects of daily life. Insomnia was the focus of analysis using chi2 statistics and, additionally, logistic regression to explore the predictors of insomnia. Bedtime was 23:30 and wake-up time was 6:35 on average, with a mean sleep time of 6.77 h on weekdays. The number of subjects with current sleep complaints was 1276, of which 735 (11.7% of the total sample) had insomnia lasting for 1 month or more. Only 37.6% of those were taking hypnotics and/or anxiolytics. Old age, female sex, neurology, psychiatry, early bedtime, late wake-up time, living alone and dissatisfaction with the bedroom environment for sleep were found to be associated with long-term insomnia. This study helps to provide a framework for further studies using the general population.

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