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J Hum Evol. 1999 Sep-Oct;37(3-4):389-413.

Ungulates from Atapuerca TD6.

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Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, c. José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, Madrid, 28006, Spain.


The ungulates from unit 6 of Gran Dolina (TD6) in the Sierra de Atapuerca (northern Spain) are studied. They include Stephanorhinus etruscus, Equus cf. altidens, Sus scrofa, Dama nestii? vallonetensis, Cervus elaphus, Eucladoceros giulii, Cervidae indet. and Bovini cf. "Bison voigtstedtensis." The taxonomy and stratigraphical distribution of most of these taxa are not universally accepted. S. etruscus, D. n.? vallonetensis, E. giulii and "B. voigtstedtensis" are late Early and early Middle Pleistocene elements. S. scrofa and C. elaphus range from the late Early Pleistocene to Recent. The fauna indicates a late Early or earliest Middle Pleistocene age, which fits the latest Early Pleistocene age suggested by palaeomagnetism. The faunal assemblage does not indicate extreme climatic conditions. The virtual absence of "glacial" taxa from the Spanish Early and Middle Pleistocene suggests that glaciations did not have a great impact on the fauna, suggesting that climate was no impediment to a continuous human occupation of Spain from the late Early Pleistocene onwards.

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