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Urol Clin North Am. 1999 Aug;26(3):643-60, viii.

Risk and prognosis in renal neoplasms. A pathologist's prospective.

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Department of Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, USA.


The incidence of renal carcinoma has increased in the United States over the last two decades. An increased rate of detection of incidental tumors and a variety of exogenous risk factors may be responsible for this increase. Pathologic stage and nuclear grade remain the most important and practical prognostic features, however, the specific tumor type has emerged as important as the cytogenetic validation of recent renal carcinoma classification. Proliferation markers, DNA ploidy, and morphometry have powerful predictive value but are handicapped by cost and complexity. The search continues for molecules of diagnostic and prognostic utility that may also impact invasive and metastatic capability for this group of neoplasms whose course is principally determined by the completeness of the original resection.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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