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Yeast. 1999 Sep 15;15(12):1183-97.

Molecular mechanism of the multiple regulation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATF1 gene encoding alcohol acetyltransferase.

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Central Laboratories for Key Technology, Kirin Brewery Co Ltd., 1-13-5, Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-0004, Japan.


The ATF1 gene encodes an alcohol acetyl transferase (AATase), that catalyses the synthesis of acetate esters from acetyl CoA and several kinds of alcohols. ATF1 transcription is negatively regulated by unsaturated fatty acids and oxygen. A series of analyses of the ATF1 promoter identified an 18 bp element essential for transcriptional activation. Ligation of the 18 bp element into a plasmid carrying the CYC1 promoter deleted UAS-activated transcription and conferred transcriptional repression by unsaturated fatty acids. The 18 bp element contains a binding sequence for Rap1p, which is a transcriptional repressor and activator. In vitro binding studies showed that Rap1p binds to the 18 bp element essential for transcriptional activation. The results of internal deletion studies of the promoter region suggested that there was also a region responsible for ATF1 oxygen regulation. This region contained the consensus binding sequence for the hypoxic repressor Rox1p. In vitro binding studies showed that Rox1p binds to the region responsible for oxygen regulation. To investigate the effect of the hypoxic repressor complex on transcription, ATF1 expression was measured in rox1, tup1 and ssn6 disruptant strains. It was found that rox1, tup1 and ssn6 disruption caused elevated expression of ATF1 under aerobic conditions. Thus, the activation of ATF1 transcription is dependent on Rap1p, and the Rox1p-Tup1p-Ssn6p hypoxic repressor complex is responsible for repression by oxygen. Furthermore, a study of ATF1 expression in a sch9 null mutant suggested that the Sch9p protein kinase is involved in ATF1 trancriptional activation.

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