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Mol Biol Evol. 1999 Sep;16(9):1145-54.

Sequence evolution of the CCR5 chemokine receptor gene in primates.

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1
Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yunnan, China.

Abstract

The chemokine receptor CCR5 can serve as a coreceptor for M-tropic HIV-1 infection and both M-tropic and T-tropic SIV infection. We sequenced the entire CCR5 gene from 10 nonhuman primates: Pongo pygmaeus, Hylobates leucogenys, Trachypithecus francoisi, Trachypithecus phayrei, Pygathrix nemaeus, Rhinopithecus roxellanae, Rhinopithecus bieti, Rhinopithecus avunculus, Macaca assamensis, and Macaca arctoides. When compared with CCR5 sequences from humans and other primates, our results demonstrate that: (1) nucleotide and amino acid sequences of CCR5 among primates are highly homologous, with variations slightly concentrated on the amino and carboxyl termini; and (2) site Asp13, which is critical for CD4-independent binding of SIV gp120 to Macaca mulatta CCR5, was also present in all other nonhuman primates tested here, suggesting that those nonhuman primate CCR5s might also bind SIV gp120 without the presence of CD4. The topologies of CCR5 gene trees constructed here conflict with the putative opinion that the snub-nosed langurs compose a monophyletic group, suggesting that the CCR5 gene may not be a good genetic marker for low-level phylogenetic analysis. The evolutionary rate of CCR5 was calculated, and our results suggest a slowdown in primates after they diverged from rodents. The synonymous mutation rate of CCR5 in primates is constant, about 1.1 x 10(-9) synonymous mutations per site per year. Comparisons of Ka and Ks suggest that the CCR5 genes have undergone negative or purifying selection. Ka/Ks ratios from cercopithecines and colobines are significantly different, implying that selective pressures have played different roles in the two lineages.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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