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Genes Dev. 1999 Sep 1;13(17):2231-41.

Activation and centromeric localization of CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins during the mitotic clonal expansion of adipocyte differentiation.

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Department of Biological Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 USA.


Hormonal induction of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes triggers a cascade of events that initiate differentiation into adipocytes. CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins beta and delta (C/EBPbeta/delta) are expressed early in the differentiation program, but are not immediately active. After a long lag, C/EBPbeta/delta become competent to bind to the C/EBP regulatory element in the C/EBPalpha gene promoter, C/EBPalpha being a transcriptional activator of numerous adipocyte genes. As C/EBPbeta/delta acquire binding activity, they become localized to centromeres as preadipocytes synchronously enter S phase at the onset of mitotic clonal expansion. Localization to centromeres occurs through C/EBP consensus-binding sites in centromeric satellite DNA. C/EBPalpha, which is antimitotic, becomes centromere-associated much later in the differentiation program as mitotic clonal expansion ceases and the cells become terminally differentiated.

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