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Lipids. 1999 Jul;34(7):717-25.

The effects of a dietary oxidized oil on lipid metabolism in rats.

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Institut für Tieremährung und Vorratshaltung, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle, Halle (Saale), Germany.


This study was carried out to investigate the effects of a dietary oxidized oil on lipid metabolism in rats, particularly the desaturation of fatty acids. Two groups of rats were fed initially for a period of 35 d diets containing 10% of either fresh oil or thermally treated oil (150 degrees C, 6 d). The dietary fats used were markedly different for lipid peroxidation products (peroxide value: 94.5 vs. 3.1 meq O2/kg; thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances: 230 vs. 7 micromol/kg) but were equalized for their fatty acid composition by using different mixtures of lard and safflower oil and for tocopherol concentrations by individual supplementation with DL-alpha-tocopherol acetate. In the second period which lasted 16 d, the same diets were supplemented with 10% linseed oil to study the effect of the oxidized oil on the desaturation of alpha-linolenic acid. During the whole period, all the rats were fed identical quantities of diet by a restrictive feeding system in order to avoid a reduced food intake in the rats fed the oxidized oil. Body weight gains and food conversion rates were only slightly lower in the rats fed the oxidized oil compared to the rats fed the fresh oil. Hence, the effects of lipid peroxidation products could be studied without a distortion by a marked reduced food intake and growth. To assess the rate of fatty acid desaturation, the fatty acid composition of liver and heart total lipids and phospholipids was determined and ratios between product and precursor of individual desaturation reactions were calculated. Rats fed the oxidized oil had reduced ratios of 20:4n-6/18:2n-6, 20:5n-3/18:3n-3, 20:4n-6/20:3n-6, and 22:6n-3/22:5n-3 in liver phospholipids and reduced ratios of 20:4n-6/18:2n-6, 22:5n-3/18:3n-3, and 22:6n-3/18:3n-3 in heart phospholipids. Those results suggest a reduced rate of desaturation of linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid by microsomal delta4-, delta5-, and delta6-desaturases. Furthermore, liver total lipids of rats fed the oxidized oil exhibited a reduced ratio between total monounsaturated fatty acids and total saturated fatty acids, suggesting a reduced delta9-desaturation. Besides those effects, the study observed a slightly increased liver weight, markedly reduced tocopherol concentrations in liver and plasma, reduced lipid concentrations in plasma, and an increased ratio between phospholipids and cholesterol in the liver. Thus, the study demonstrates that feeding an oxidized oil causes several alterations of lipid and fatty acid metabolism which might be of great physiologic relevance.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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