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In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 1999 Jun;35(6):357-63.

The presence of transcription factors in chicken albumin, yolk and blastoderm.

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  • 1Division of Neurosurgery, Children's Memorial Medical Center and Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Illinois 60614, USA.


Embryonic development is determined by preset intrinsic programs and extrinsic signals. To explore the possibility that transcription factors are present at the onset of development, preparations of yolk, albumin, and blastoderm from unfertilized and fertilized white Leghorn chicken eggs were screened by a panel of 16 transcription factor antibodies with Western blot techniques. Yolk was positive for 13 transcription factors, whereas blastoderm was positive for 10, and albumin was positive for 5. In yolk, several transcription factors, GATA-2, E2F-1, MyoD, and TFIID, were developmentally regulated. These results indicate that intracellular yolk and extracellular albumin contain transcription factors which presumably influence early chick embryonic development from prefertilization to the late blastoderm stage. Thus, the utility of preset maternal transcription factors within yolk and albumin complement maternally derived mRNA to determine the early development of the zygote.

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