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Int J Cancer. 1999 Oct 8;83(2):223-9.

Tobacco, alcohol and the risk of gastric cancer by sub-site and histologic type.

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Department of Medical Epidemiology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.


Few studies have provided information on the role of smoking and alcohol in the carcinogenesis of gastric cancer by sub-site and histologic type. The relationship of snuff dipping with risk of gastric cancer has also been rarely studied. In a population-based case-control study conducted in 5 counties of Sweden from February 1989 to January 1995, a total of 90 cases of gastric cardia cancer, 260 and 164 cases of distal gastric cancer of intestinal and diffuse types, respectively, and 1164 frequency-matched control subjects were personally interviewed about life-time smoking, use of smokeless tobacco and use of alcohol 20 years ago. Current smokers had a higher risk than never-smokers for all 3 kinds of gastric adenocarcinoma [odds ratio (OR) 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-3.1 for gastric cardia adenocarcinoma; OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.7 for distal gastric cancer of intestinal type; and OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4-3.5 for distal gastric cancer of diffuse type], and the risk rose with increasing dose and duration of smoking among current smokers. However, no elevated risk was observed for ex-smokers. Neither intake of alcoholic beverages nor snuff dipping was associated with an increased risk of any type of cardia or gastric cancer. Our study did not support the hypothesis that the role of tobacco differs by sub-site and histologic sub-type of gastric cancer.

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