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Cell Growth Differ. 1999 Aug;10(8):591-600.

Mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor mediates the growth-inhibitory effects of retinoids.

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  • 1Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown 02129-2000, USA.


Both retinoids and the mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor-II receptor (M6P/IGF2R) have been shown to play an important role in controlling cell growth during embryonic development and oncogenesis. Our recent work (Kang et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 94: 13671-13676, 1997; Kang et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 95: 13687-13691, 1998) revealed a direct biochemical interaction between retinoic acid (RA) and the M6P/IGF2R, thereby leading us to hypothesize that the M6P/IGF2R may mediate a growth-inhibiting effect of RA. To test this hypothesis, cell growth and apoptosis in response to RA and various receptor-selective retinoids were examined in cells that lack or overexpress the M6P/IGF2R. RA and those retinoids capable of binding to the M6P/IGF2R induced a remarkable morphological change with characteristics of round shape and reduced spreading, apoptosis, and growth inhibition in stably transfected mouse P388D1 cells overexpressing the M6P/IGF2R but not in the M6P/IGF2R-deficient P388D1 cells. These effects of RA were neither blocked by a potent RA nuclear receptor (RAR) antagonist (AGN193109), nor mimicked by a selective RAR agonist (TTNPB), suggesting that the observed effects of RA are independent of RARs. Similar effects of the retinoids were observed in cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes that have high levels of the M6P/IGF2R. Furthermore, overexpression of the M6P/IGF2R in a RA-resistant cancer cell line (HL-60R) that lacked functional RARs gave the cells a susceptibility to RA-induced apoptosis. These data suggest that the M6P/ IGF2R may play an important role in mediating retinoid-induced apoptosis/growth-inhibition and provide insight into the similar biological effects of RA and the M6P/IGF2R on fetal development and carcinogenesis.

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