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Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1999 Sep;13(3):595-618.

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antibiotics in meningitis.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, USA. drandes@facstaff.wisc.edu

Abstract

The penetration of antimicrobials into the CSF is dependent on lipid solubility, molecular size, capillary and choroid plexus efflux pumps, protein binding, and the degree of inflammation. Penicillins, certain cephalosporins, carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, vancomycin, and rifampin provide the highest ratios of CSF levels to the MBC for common infecting organisms. For beta-lactam antibiotics, it is the duration of time that CSF concentrations exceed the MBC that determines the rate of bactericidal activity. It appears that levels should exceed the MBC for more than 50% of the dosing interval. The peak/MBC and AUC/MBC ratios are important determinants of efficacy for aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones. Once-daily dosing of aminoglycosides is as effective as multiple-daily dosing regimens in experimental meningitis, probably because of drug-induced prolonged persistent effects. Fluoroquinolones do not produce as prolonged persistent effects and are slightly less effective when administered once daily. Although steroid use can reduce the penetration and decrease the bactericidal activity of some antimicrobials, such as vancomycin, in experimental meningitis, the clinical impact of steroid use in human meningitis is still unclear.

PMID:
10470557
DOI:
10.1016/s0891-5520(05)70096-9
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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