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Nat Med. 1999 Sep;5(9):997-103.

HIV-1 Nef mediates lymphocyte chemotaxis and activation by infected macrophages.

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University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Program in Molecular Medicine, 373 Plantation Street, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA.


Infection of macrophage lineage cells is a feature of primate lentivirus replication, and several properties of primate lentiviruses seem to have evolved to promote the infection of macrophages. Here we demonstrate that the accessory gene product Nef induces the production of two CC-chemokines, macrophage inflammatory proteins 1alpha and 1beta, by HIV-1-infected macrophages. Adenovirus-mediated expression of Nef in primary macrophages was sufficient for chemokine induction. Supernatants from Nef-expressing macrophages induced both the chemotaxis and activation of resting T lymphocytes, permitting productive HIV-1 infection. These results indicate a role for Nef in lymphocyte recruitment and activation at sites of virus replication.

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