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Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999 Aug 27;262(2):452-60.

Characterization of the promoter region of the human melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene.

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Shiseido Research Center, 1050 Nippa-cho, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa, 223-8553, Japan.


We sequenced 3201 bp upstream from the ATG translation start codon of the human melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R). A number of transcriptional initiation sites were detected over a region of approximately 600 base pairs upstream of the receptor coding region. These consist of GC-rich regions, each including SP-1 consensus binding motifs. Neither a TATA nor a CAAT box was found in this region. The 5'-flanking region also contains the consensus regulatory elements for AP-1, AP-2, and several E-boxes. Gel shift assays targeting the three GC boxes confirmed binding of SP-1. A promoter assay revealed that the minimal region exhibiting promoter activity was located between nucleotides -517 and -282 in human melanoma SK-Mel-2 cells. Further deletion from -517 to -447, which removed an SP-1 site, completely abolished luciferase activity. In conclusion, the MC1R promoter shares the characteristics of many other GPCR promoters. These characteristics include GC-rich sequence, lack of a TATA box, and binding of SP-1.

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