Send to

Choose Destination
Vaccine. 1999 Aug 6;17(23-24):3050-64.

The induction of systemic and mucosal immune responses following the subcutaneous immunization of mature adult mice: characterization of the antibodies in mucosal secretions of animals immunized with antigen formulations containing a vitamin D3 adjuvant.

Author information

Department of Pathology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City 84132, USA.


Systemic and mucosal immune responses were effectively induced following the subcutaneous administration of Haemophilus influenzae type b oligosaccharide conjugated to diphtheria toxoid vaccine in a formulation containing the active form of vitamin D3. IgA and IgG antibodies with specificity for both the protein and oligosaccharide components of the vaccine were detectable in mucosal secretions following immunization. The IgA and IgG mucosal antibodies were produced locally, and were functional as demonstrated by their diphtheria toxin neutralizing activity. Our data suggests that subcutaneous tissues can effectively serve as effective antigen presenting sites for both mucosal and systemic immune responses to antigens administered in combination with vitamin D3.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center