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J Interferon Cytokine Res. 1999 Jul;19(7):751-5.

Production of influenza-stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha by monocytes following acute influenza infection in humans.

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  • 1Infectious Diseases Unit, University of Rochester, NY 14642, USA.


Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is often measured in the serum or plasma of patients with severe infections, and marked elevation correlates with poor outcome. The relationship of TNF-alpha to protection from disease is frequently not observed because prospective studies of infectious agents are difficult to perform. We took advantage of a human antiviral influenza challenge study to correlate TNF-alpha production with seroconversion and symptom development. TNF-alpha production was measured by ELISA in the plasma compartment or was measured by intracellular production at the single cell level in the monocyte gated population. Monocyte TNF-alpha was associated with asymptomatic seroconversion, whereas there was no change in the plasma at the times measured. Measurement of TNF-alpha at the single cell level by flow cytometry may allow for better differentiation of the protective role of this cytokine in future studies.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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