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Clin Infect Dis. 1999 Jun;28(6):1252-9.

Persistence of human immunodeficiency virus in semen after adding indinavir to combination antiretroviral therapy.

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Fenway Community Health Center, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA.


Changes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 concentration and protease genotype were evaluated in semen specimens from 22 HIV-positive men before and 6 months after the addition of indinavir to dual nucleoside therapy. Seminal HIV was detected by polymerase chain reaction analysis for DNA or RNA for 59% of men before combination treatment and persisted at 6 months for 31% of the men who initially had seminal HIV detected (P = .026). The maximum levels of cell-free RNA, cell-associated RNA, and proviral DNA in semen before treatment and at 6 months were 400,000 and 10,000 copies/mL, 70,000 and 27,000 copies/mL, and 80,000 and 3,000 copies/mL, respectively. Three of the four men with persistent seminal DNA had plasma viral loads of > 10,000 copies/mL before treatment. One patient who became intolerant to indinavir had seminal HIV RNA detected by PCR analysis after 6 months. Although none of the cultures of semen specimens from the four men with PCR analysis-detectable seminal DNA after 6 months yielded HIV, indinavir resistance mutations were identified in a seminal leukocyte DNA specimen from one patient, and a second patient whose therapy was switched to saquinavir had different protease inhibitor resistance mutations in seminal and blood leukocyte DNA specimens. HIV-1 protease inhibitor resistance mutants may emerge in the semen of patients receiving combination therapy.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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