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Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1999 Aug;9(4):427-33.

Extracellular modulation of the Hedgehog, Wnt and TGF-beta signalling pathways during embryonic development.

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  • 1The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, Gene Expression Laboratory, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.


Localized embryonic expression of members of the Hedgehog, Wnt and TGF-beta families of secreted factors has been shown to organize pattern and provide positional information in many developing systems. Recently, several extracellular factors have been described that act either as facilitators or inhibitors of the activities of those secreted proteins. The variety of molecular strategies involved in the extracellular modulation of signalling activities in the embryo underscores the importance of maintaining a tight spatial and temporal control of the activities of organizing centers during development.

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