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Nature. 1999 Aug 5;400(6744):581-5.

IGF-1 induces skeletal myocyte hypertrophy through calcineurin in association with GATA-2 and NF-ATc1.

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Cardiovascular Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital-East, Charlestown 02129, USA.
Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA


Localized synthesis of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) has been broadly implicated in skeletal muscle growth, hypertrophy and regeneration. Virally delivered IGF-1 genes induce local skeletal muscle hypertrophy and attenuate age-related skeletal muscle atrophy, restoring and improving muscle mass and strength in mice. Here we show that the molecular pathways underlying the hypertrophic action of IGF-1 in skeletal muscle are similar to those responsible for cardiac hypertrophy. Transfected IGF-1 gene expression in postmitotic skeletal myocytes activates calcineurin-mediated calcium signalling by inducing calcineurin transcripts and nuclear localization of calcineurin protein. Expression of activated calcineurin mimics the effects of IGF-1, whereas expression of a dominant-negative calcineurin mutant or addition of cyclosporin, a calcineurin inhibitor, represses myocyte differentiation and hypertrophy. Either IGF-1 or activated calcineurin induces expression of the transcription factor GATA-2, which accumulates in a subset of myocyte nuclei, where it associates with calcineurin and a specific dephosphorylated isoform of the transcription factor NF-ATc1. Thus, IGF-1 induces calcineurin-mediated signalling and activation of GATA-2, a marker of skeletal muscle hypertrophy, which cooperates with selected NF-ATc isoforms to activate gene expression programs.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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