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Curr Opin Immunol. 1999 Aug;11(4):412-9.

Immune effector mechanisms in malaria.

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The Cooperative Research Centre for Vaccine Technology, The Queensland Institute of Medical Research, PO Royal Brisbane Hospital 4029, Queensland, Australia.


Malaria, a disease responsible for immense human suffering, is caused by infection with Plasmodium spp. parasites, which have a very complex life cycle - antigenically unique stages infect different tissues of the body. This review details recent developments in our understanding of immunity both to pre-erythrocytic stage antigens and to erythrocytic stage antigens. The former is largely mediated via CD8(+) T cells and involves IFN-gamma, nitric oxide, IL-12 and natural killer cells; the latter varies (in different hosts and with different parasites) but is largely mediated by antibody, helper T cells, nitric oxide and gammadelta T cells. The recent progress towards clinical trials of vaccine candidates against both the pre-erythrocytic stage and erythrocytic stage is also summarized, in particular the use of heterologous prime/boost strategies for the former and the use of MSP1 as a candidate vaccine for the latter.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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