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Mol Endocrinol. 1999 Aug;13(8):1318-37.

Functional and subcellular changes in the A-kinase-signaling pathway: relation to aromatase and Sgk expression during the transition of granulosa cells to luteal cells.

Author information

1
Department of Cell Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

Abstract

The responsiveness of granulosa cells to FSH (cAMP) changes as these cells switch from the proliferative stage in growing follicles to the terminally differentiated, nonproliferating stage after LH-induced luteinization. To analyze this transition, two well characterized culture systems were used. 1) Granulosa cells isolated from immature rats were cultured in serum-free medium, a system that permits analysis of dynamic, short-term responses to hormones/cAMP. 2) Granulosa cells from preovulatory (PO) follicles that have been exposed in vivo to surge concentrations of hCG (PO/ hCG) were cultured in medium containing 1% FBS, a system that permits analyses of cells that have undergo irreversible, long-term changes associated with luteinization. To analyze the biochemical basis for the switch in cAMP responsiveness, the localization of A-kinase pathway components was related to the expression of two cAMP target genes, aromatase (CYP19) and serum-and glucocorticoid-induced kinase (Sgk). Components of the A-kinase pathway were analyzed by Western blotting and indirect immunofluorescence using specific antibodies to the C subunit, RIIalpha/beta subunits, CREB (cAMP-regulatory element binding protein), phospho-CREB, CBP (CREB binding protein), and Sgk. Cellular levels of C subunit and CREB were similar in all cell types and hormone treatments. CREB and CBP were nuclear; RIIalpha/beta was restricted to a cytoplasmic basket-like structure. Addition of FSH to immature granulosa cells caused rapid nuclear import of C subunit within 1 h. Nuclear C subunit decreased by 6 h after FSH but could be rapidly reimported to the nucleus by the addition of forskolin at 6, 24, or 48 h. Nuclear C subunit was associated with the rapid but transient increases in phospho-CREB. FSH induced Sgk in a biphasic manner in which the protein was nuclear at 1 h and cytoplasmic at 48 h. Aromatase mRNA was only expressed at 24-48 h after FSH, a pattern that was not altered by phosphodiesterases or phosphatases. In the luteinized (PO/hCG) granulosa cells, immunoreactive C subunit was localized in a punctate pattern in the nucleus as well as to a cytoplasmic basket-like structure, a distribution pattern not altered by forskolin. Aromatase, Sgk, and phospho-CREB were expressed at elevated levels in a non-forskolin-responsive manner. Most notable, both phospho-CREB and Sgk were preferentially localized in a punctate pattern within the cytoplasm and not altered by forskolin. Collectively, these data indicate that when granulosa cells differentiate to luteal cells the subcellular localization (nuclear vs. cytoplasmic) of A-kinase pathway components changes markedly. Thus, either the mechanisms of nuclear import and export or the presence of distinct docking sites (and functions ?) dictate where A-kinase, phospho-CREB and Sgk are localized in granulosa cells compared with the terminally differentiated luteal cells.

PMID:
10446906
DOI:
10.1210/mend.13.8.0334
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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