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Arch Biochem Biophys. 1999 Aug 15;368(2):244-8.

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) and 9-cis-retinoids are synergistic regulators of 24-hydroxylase activity in the rat and 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) alters retinoic acid metabolism in vivo.

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Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Ames, Iowa, 50010, USA.


The RXR forms a heterodimer with the VDR to activate genes that are regulated by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). In the absence of RXR's ligand, 9-cis-RA, RXR appears to be a silent partner to VDR. The effect of 9-cis-RA on VDR/RXR heterodimer formation and 1, 25(OH)(2)D(3)-mediated gene expression in vivo remains unclear. We examined the effect of exogenous 9-cis-RA or 9-cis-RA precursors, 9, 13-di-cis-RA and 9-cis-RCHO, on 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-mediated induction rat renal 24-hydroxylase. The rats were treated as follows: (1) vehicle; (2) 1,25(OH)(2)D(3); (3) 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) + 9-cis-RA; (4) 1, 25(OH)(2)D(3) + 9,13-di-cis-RA; (5) 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) + 9-cis-RCHO; (6) 9-cis-RA; (7) 9,13-di-cis-RA; and (8) 9-cis-RCHO. 1, 25(OH)(2)D(3) was administered IP 18 h prior to sacrifice. The retinoids were administered every 4 h, starting 28 h prior to sacrifice. The last retinoid dose was administered 4 h prior to sacrifice. Treatment with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) alone increased 24-hydroxylase from 35 +/- 6 (controls) to 258 +/- 44 pmol/min/g tissue. When 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) was administered with 9-cis-RA, 9, 13-di-cis-RA, or 9-cis-RCHO, 24-hydroxylases were 568 +/- 56, 524 +/- 56, and 463 +/- 62 pmol/min/g tissue, respectively. Furthermore, codosing of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and 9-cis-retinoids resulted in higher circulating concentrations of 9-cis-RA and 9,13-di-cis-RA when compared to rats dosed with 9-cis-retinoids alone. This was shown to be due to 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) increasing the half-life of 9,13-di-cis-RA by three to four times. These results show that 9-cis-RA can act synergistically with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) in the regulation of 24-hydroxylase in vivo. Additionally, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) regulates 9, 13-di-cis-RA metabolism in vivo.

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