Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Exp Biol. 1999 Sep;202(Pt 17):2329-38.

The relationship between mechanical work and energy expenditure of locomotion in horses.

Author information

  • 1Department of Physiology, Istituto Tecnologie Biomediche Avanzate, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Fratelli Cervi 93, Milano, Italy.


Three-dimensional motion capture and metabolic assessment were performed on four standardbred horses while walking, trotting and galloping on a motorized treadmill at different speeds. The mechanical work was partitioned into the internal work (W(INT)), due to the speed changes of body segments with respect to the body centre of mass, and the external work (W(EXT)), due to the position and speed changes of the body centre of mass with respect to the environment. The estimated total mechanical work (W(TOT)=W(INT)+W(EXT)) increased with speed, while metabolic work (C) remained rather constant. As a consequence, the 'apparent efficiency' (eff(APP)=W(TOT)/C) increased from 10 % (walking) to over 100 % (galloping), setting the highest value to date for terrestrial locomotion. The contribution of elastic structures in the horse's limbs was evaluated by calculating the elastic energy stored and released during a single bounce (W(EL,BOUNCE)), which was approximately 1.23 J kg(-)(1) for trotting and up to 6 J kg(-)(1) for galloping. When taking into account the elastic energy stored by the spine bending and released as W(INT), as suggested in the literature for galloping, W(EL,BOUNCE) was reduced by 0.88 J kg(-)(1). Indirect evidence indicates that force, in addition to mechanical work, is also a determinant of the metabolic energy expenditure in horse locomotion.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

LinkOut - more resources

Full Text Sources

Other Literature Sources

PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire
    Loading ...
    Support Center