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J Biol Chem. 1999 Aug 13;274(33):23305-10.

The binding of arachidonic acid in the cyclooxygenase active site of mouse prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase-2 (COX-2). A putative L-shaped binding conformation utilizing the top channel region.

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A. B. Hancock, Jr. Memorial Laboratory for Cancer Research, Vanderbilt Cancer Center, Center in Molecular Toxicology, Departments of Biochemistry and Chemistry, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA.


The chemical mandates for arachidonic acid conversion to prostaglandin G(2) within the cyclooxygenase (COX) active site predict that the substrate will orient in a kinked or L-shaped conformation. Molecular modeling of arachidonic acid in sheep COX-1 confirms that this L-shaped conformation is possible, with the carboxylate moiety binding to Arg-120 and the omega-end positioned above Ser-530 in a region termed the top channel. Mutations of Gly-533 to valine or leucine in the top channel of mCOX-2 abolished the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin G(2), presumably because of a steric clash between the omega-end of the substrate and the introduced side chains. A smaller G533A mutant retained partial COX activity. The loss of COX activity with these mutants was not the result of reduced peroxidase activity, because the activity of all mutants was equivalent to the wild-type enzyme and the addition of exogenous peroxide did not restore full COX activity to any of the mutants. However, the Gly-533 mutants were able to oxidize the carbon 18 fatty acid substrates linolenic acid and stearidonic acid, which contain an allylic carbon at the omega-5 position. In contrast, linoleic acid, which is like arachidonic acid in that its most omega-proximal allylic carbon is at the omega-8 position, was not oxidized by the Gly-533 mutants. Finally, the ability of Gly-533 mutants to efficiently process omega-5 allylic substrates suggests that the top channel does not serve as a product exit route indicating that oxygenated substrate diffuses from the cyclooxygenase active site in a membrane proximal direction.

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