Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Infect Dis. 1999 Sep;180(3):579-85.

Th2 responses to inactivated influenza virus can Be converted to Th1 responses and facilitate recovery from heterosubtypic virus infection.

Author information

1
Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA. tmoran@smtplink.mssm.edu

Abstract

Immunization with live influenza virus expands Th1 memory cells and facilitates more rapid recovery after heterosubtypic virus challenge. Immunization with inactivated virus generates a Th2 response and does not lead to heterosubtypic immunity. Creation of a Th1 priming environment by the inclusion of interleukin (IL)-12 with antibodies to IL-4 converted the response against inactivated virus to a Th1 response that was able to facilitate virus clearance upon heterosubtypic virus challenge. Evaluation of memory responses of mice immunized by the various protocols demonstrated that the type of immunization imprints T cell memory, dictating the nature of the response to subsequent infection. After live virus challenge, expansion of Th1 cells seems to facilitate the generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes from naïve precursors. This latter finding may be the mechanism by which inactivated virus immunization in a Th1 cytokine context mediates heterosubtypic immunity.

PMID:
10438342
DOI:
10.1086/314952
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Silverchair Information Systems
    Loading ...
    Support Center