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Vaccine. 1999 Jul 16;17(22):2918-26.

Mutants of cholera toxin as an effective and safe adjuvant for nasal influenza vaccine.

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Department of Pathology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan.


The effectiveness and safety of mutants of cholera toxin (CT) as an adjuvant for nasal influenza vaccine was examined. Four CT mutants, called CT7 K (Arg to Lys), CT61F (Arg to Phe), CT112 K (Glu to Lys), and CT118E (Glu to Gln), were produced by the replacement of one amino acid at the A1-subunit using site-directed mutagenesis. All these mutants were confirmed to be less toxic than native CT when the toxicity was analysed by using Y1 adrenal cells in vitro. When high (1 microg) and low (0.1 microg) doses of these CT mutants, together with high (1 microg) and low (0.1 microg) doses of influenza A/PR/8/34 virus (H1N1) vaccine, respectively, were administered intranasally into BALB/c mice in a two dose regimen (twice, 4 weeks apart), they produced both anti-PR8 hemagglutinin (HA) IgA and IgG antibody (Ab) responses roughly in a dose-dependent manner. The relatively low level of anti-HA Ab responses, induced by the low dose CT mutants, were enough to provide complete protection against the homologous virus infection. Under these vaccination conditions, no anti-CTB IgE Ab responses were induced. The mutant CT112 K, which showed a relatively high adjuvant activity, the lowest toxicity and relatively high yields in a bacterial culture, seems to be the most effective and safest adjuvant for nasal influenza vaccine among those examined. The low dose of CT derivatives or vaccine used in the mouse model (0.1 microg/20 g mouse) corresponded to 100 microg/20 kg, the estimated dose per person. A tentative plan for safety standards for human use of CT (or LT) derivatives as an adjuvant of nasal influenza vaccine is discussed.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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