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Cardiovasc Res. 1999 Apr;42(1):57-64.

Ischaemic preconditioning changes the pattern of coronary reactive hyperaemia in the goat: role of adenosine and nitric oxide.

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Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche e Biologiche, Università di Torino, Ospedale S. Luigi, Orbassano, Italy.



After ischaemic preconditioning (IP), obtained by short episodes of ischaemia, cardiac protection occurs due to a reduction in myocardial metabolism through the activation of A1 adenosine receptors. The antiarrhythmic effect of IP is attributed to an increase in the release of nitric oxide (NO) by the endothelium. On the basis of the above consideration the present investigation studies the changes induced by preconditioning in coronary reactive hyperaemia (RH) and how blockade of A1 receptors and inhibition of NO synthesis can modify these changes.


In anaesthetised goats, an electromagnetic flow-probe was placed around the left circumflex coronary artery. Preconditioning was obtained with two episodes of 2.5 min of coronary occlusion, separated by 5 min of reperfusion. RH was obtained with a 15 s occlusion. In a control group (n = 7) RH was studied before and after IP. In a second group (n = 7), 0.2 mg kg-1 of 8-cyclopentyl-dipropylxanthine, an A1 receptor blocker, and in a third group (n = 7) 10 mg kg-1 of NG-nitro-L-arginine (LNNA), an NO inhibitor, were given before IP. Reactive hyperaemia was again obtained before and after IP.


In the control group, after IP, the time to peak hyperaemic flow and total hyperaemic flow decreased by about 50% and 25%, respectively. The A1 receptor blockade alone did not change RH. During A1 blockade, IP reduced the time to peak of RH similar as in control (45%), but did not alter total hyperaemic flow. LNNA alone reduced resting flow and total hyperaemic flow. After NO inhibition, IP only reduced total hyperaemic flow by about 15%, but the time to peak flow was not affected.


IP alters RH by decreasing total hyperaemic flow and reducing the time to peak hyperaemic flow. While the former effect is attributed to a reduction in myocardial metabolism through the activation of the A1 receptors, the latter is likely to be due to an increased endothelial release of NO, suggesting that in addition to a protective effect on the myocardium, IP also exerts a direct effect on the responsiveness of the coronary vasculature (vascular preconditioning).

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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