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J Appl Microbiol. 1999 Jul;87(1):80-90.

Viscosinamide, a new cyclic depsipeptide with surfactant and antifungal properties produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens DR54.

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Department of Ecology, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Frederiksberg, Denmark.


Pseudomonas fluorescens DR54 showed antagonistic properties against plant pathogenic Pythium ultimum and Rhizoctonia solani both in vitro and in planta. Antifungal activity was extractable from spent growth media, and fractionation by semi-preparative HPLC resulted in isolation of an active compound, which was identified as a new bacterial cyclic lipodepsipeptide, viscosinamide, using 1D and 2D 1H-, 13C-NMR and mass spectrometry. The new antibiotic has biosurfactant properties but differs from the known biosurfactant, viscosin, by containing glutamine rather than glutamate at the amino acid position 2 (AA2). No viscosin production was observed, however, when Ps. fluorescens DR54 was cultured in media enriched with glutamate. In vitro tests showed that purified viscosinamide also reduced fungal growth and aerial mycelium development of both P. ultimum and R. solani. Viscosinamide production by Ps. fluorescens DR54 was tightly coupled to cell proliferation in the batch cultures, as the viscosinamide produced per cell mass unit approached a constant value. In batch cultures with variable initial C, N or P nutrient levels, there were no indications of elevated viscosinamide production during starvation or maintenance of the cultures in stationary phase. Analysis of cellular fractions and spent growth media showed that a major fraction of the viscosinamide produced remained bound to the cell membrane of Ps. fluorescens DR54. The isolation, determination of structure and production characteristics of the new compound with both biosurfactant and antibiotic properties have promising perspectives for the application of Ps. fluorescens DR54 in biological control.

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