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Electrophoresis. 1999 Jun;20(7):1418-24.

Electrophoretic analysis of oxidative modification of apolipoprotein E in very low density lipoprotein from fresh human plasma.

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1
Department of Neurosurgery, Yamaguchi University School of Medicine, Ube, Japan. kashi-ygc@umin.ac.jp

Abstract

Ferrous ion-induced oxidative modification of apoE in lipid peroxidation of human very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and the role of the cysteinyl group, present in apoE3 but absent in apoE4, were examined. Fresh human VLDL was obtained from healthy volunteers with different apoE phenotypes as determined by isoelectric focusing (IEF). The VLDL was oxidized by incubating with FeSO4. The time course of the lipid peroxidation was determined by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assay. The sequential oxidative modification of the apoE was demonstrated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting with an anti-apoE antibody. To modify the cysteinyl group of apoE3, the VLDL from the apoE3/3 subject was pretreated with cysteamine before the TBA assay and electrophoresis. The ferrous ion-induced peroxidation of the VLDL was pH-dependent, with increased reactivity at acidic pH ranges. In the initial stage of the lipid peroxidation of the VLDL, aggregates were formed involving apoE dimers and apoB via disulfide bonds, followed by the intra- and intermolecular cross-linkings of apoE monomers. The VLDL with apoE3/4 showed a shorter lag time than the VLDL with apoE3/3 in the TBA assay, suggesting a lower antioxidative effect with apoE3/4. The apoE3/3 pretreated with cysteamine showed the patterns of apoE3/4 in IEF and SDS-PAGE with immunoblotting, but it did not show the shortened lag time in the TBA assay. This suggests that factors other than cysteinyl groups contribute to the reduced antioxidative activity of apoE4.

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