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Ann Thorac Surg. 1999 Jul;68(1):149-53; discussion 153-4.

Perventricular [correction of Periventricular] closure of ventricular septal defects without cardiopulmonary bypass.

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Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA.

Erratum in

  • Ann Thorac Surg 2000 Feb;69(2):71.



Minimally invasive techniques are currently in use to close atrial and ventricular septal defects (VSD). Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is instituted via the femoral vessels, which may cause injury to these vessels, especially in younger patients. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate the feasibility of perventricular [corrected] closure of muscular VSD (MVSD) and paramembranous VSD (PVSD) without CPB, using the Amplatz VSD device.


Five Yucatan pigs with naturally occurring PVSD (3- to 7-mm diameter) and 5 dogs with surgically created MVSD (6- to 14-mm diameter) were subjects of this study. The VSDs were closed intraoperatively with a 7-French delivery sheath inserted through the free wall of the right (n = 5) or left ventricle (n = 5), under epicardial echocardiogram guidance. The animals were followed for 3 months.


There was no operative mortality. All MVSD closed after placement of the device. Closure rate of PVSD was 4 of 5 after placement and 3 of 5 after 3 months. One pig developed aortic incompetence at the last follow-up.


Perventricular closure of MVSD and PVSD is feasible. Avoidance of CPB can decrease recovery time, its complications, and trauma to the femoral vessels.

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