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World J Urol. 1999 Jun;17(3):137-43.

Urodynamics in the anatomical work of Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519).

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Department of Urology, Hannover Medical School, Germany.


Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) incorporates the symbiosis of art and medicine and can be addressed as the founder of medical illustration in the time of the Renaissance. His anatomy studies were not published in his time, which explains why Leonardo's outstanding knowledge of anatomy, physiology, and medicine had no impact on his scientific contemporaries and is therefore primarily of retrospective importance in the history of medicine. The collection of anatomical illustrations remained unknown until their rediscovery in the eighteenth century and their wide publication at the beginning of our century. This article systematically reviews Leonardo's genitourinary drawings with regard to urodynamic aspects of the upper and lower urinary tract, highlighting topics such as vesicoureteral reflux and urinary sphincter mechanisms.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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