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Arch Ophthalmol. 1999 Jul;117(7):900-3.

Nonsurgical management of binocular diplopia induced by macular pathology.

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Department of Ophthalmology, Manhattan Eye, Ear, and Throat Hospital, New York, NY, USA.



To treat binocular diplopia secondary to macular pathology.


Seven patients underwent evaluation and treatment. All had constant vertical diplopia caused by various maculopathies, including subretinal neovascularization, epiretinal membrane, and central serous retinopathy. Visual acuity ranged from 20/20 to 20/30 in the affected eye. All except 1 patient had a small-angle, comitant hyperdeviation with no muscle paresis. Sensory evaluation demonstrated peripheral fusion and reduced stereoacuity. Neither prism correction nor manipulation of the refractive errors corrected the diplopia. A partially occlusive foil (Bangerter) of density ranging from 0.4 to 1.0 was placed in front of the affected eye to restore stable, single vision.


The Bangerter foil eliminated the diplopia in all patients. Two patients elected not to wear the foil; 1 patient was afraid of becoming dependent, and the other was bothered by the visual blur. Visual acuity in the affected eye was reduced on average by 3 lines. All patients maintained the same level of sensory fusion, with only 2 having reduced stereoacuity. Symptoms returned when the foil was removed or its density was reduced.


Low-density Bangerter foils provide an effective, inexpensive, and aesthetically acceptable management for refractory binocular diplopia induced by macular pathology, allowing peripheral fusion to be maintained.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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